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Pol. Sci. 180 Urgent Announcement (for group 1)

Posted by Brian C. Ventura on October 1, 2010

Group 1 Presentor must provide the following as comment below this post.

1. order of the presentation, including the topic, time allotment for each topic and the name of the presentor. .

2. abstract of the individual presentation.

All members of the class is advised to check this post regularly for further announcement related to the presentation.

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12 Responses to “Pol. Sci. 180 Urgent Announcement (for group 1)”

  1. Christian D. Sorongon said

    European Union’s International Environmental Commitment:
    Challenges World Order

    ABSTRACT

    International Environmental Politics is concerned with the interaction of various states in response to emerging issues in the global environment. Non-state actors also play fundamental role in international environmental politics.
    Subsequently, World Order is defined as states being state-centric. This means that in any international phenomena, states are the principal actors. For instance, decision-making emanates from states. In this paper, it is contended that due to international environmental politics, World Order is being challenged. Hence, the role of states is undermined by the role of international organizations, international treaties or agreements, and non-governmental organizations on dealing with international environmental issues.
    Particularly, the author argued that the adoption of Kyoto Protocol by the European Union manifests World Order as being challenged. The European Union, for one, committed a reduction of greenhouse gases emissions by eight (8) percent. The member states of European Union had indeed complied with the Kyoto Commitment.
    Apparently, European Union played a significant role in reinforcing its commitment towards its member states. European Union, as an institution, has European Commission which acts as the executive body of the said international organization. European Union also has a specific body which is the European Union Network for the Implementation and Enforcement of Environmental Law to guarantee and monitor the implementation of its policies and international commitments specifically on environmental cases. Lastly, European Union also enacted the Environmental Liability Directive wherein it imposes penalties to member states which do not comply with the organization’s environmental policies.
    It was therefore concluded that the European Union was indeed effective in enforcing international environmental regulations towards its member states. Therefore, with the compliance of the member states with the Kyoto Protocol as an international environmental standard, International Environmental Politics indeed challenges World Order.

    Christian D. Sorongon
    University of the Philippines in the Visayas
    College of Arts and Sciences
    Division of Social Sciences
    Miag-ao, Iloilo, Philippines

  2. Frances Therese Roxas said

    Manifestation of State-centrism and Hegemony in International Environmental Politics

    A Case Study on Nuclear States and Radioactive Waste Management

    Abstract
    The paper aims to affirm international environmental politics as reinforcing the World Order. The international system is characterized as anarchic in such a way that international institutions have no legitimate power to dictate the state’s actions and punish them for their misconducts or violations on international agreements. States, from the lenses of realism, are sovereign entities who would always guarantee its own security to preserve and enhance their power. The response of nuclear countries on the London Convention and Protocol is a clear demonstration of how states, as autonomous actors would behave in an anarchic world. In 1972, the international agreement on the prevention of marine pollution restricted the dumping of radioactive wastes into the oceans. Also called the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, the convention bans certain harmful wastes from being dumped at sea and allows disposal of less hazardous matters only through special permits. Radioactive wastes, especially high-level ones are explicitly prohibited as these could pose detrimental effects on the environment such as sea water contamination and fishing grounds devastation. In 2006, London Convention was replaced by a more restrictive London Protocol. Despite the tough regulations, constant violations of the convention and protocol took place. In 1993, Russia admitted that it continued to dump radioactive wastes to the coast of Japan despite being a signatory of the convention. The United States and EU was reported to be disposing radioactive matters on the shores of Somalia, Nigeria and Haiti. Even so, the convention and protocol haven’t dealt with the offenders primarily because the convention and protocol impose no sanctions to those violators. Second, compliance on the convention and protocol is merely voluntary for states. Lastly, violators of the agreements are powerful nuclear states.

  3. Elaine Falguera Villanueva said

    Group 1

    International Environmental Politics: Reinforcing or Challenging World Order

    I. Introduction
    a. International Environmental Politics
    b. World Order
    1. state centric
    2. self-interested (Anarchic)
    c. Reinforcing the World Order
    d. Challenging the World Order
    e. Regime Formation
    II. Arguments Reinforcing the World Order
    a. Prevalence of state action over International Policies
    i. Whale Conservation (Bernardez)
    b. Strengthening the State: Desertification in Ethiopia and Nigeria (Lebrilla)
    c. Manifestation of State-centrism and Hegemony in Compliance of International Environmental Agreements Case Study on London Convention and Protocol. (Roxas)
    d. International Politics in the Guise of International Environmental Policy: A Kyoto Protocol Case Study (Niquia)
    e. Role of the United Nation Environment Programme in Reinforcing the World Order: The Case of Green Economy Initiative. (Villanueva)
    III. Arguments Challenging the World Order
    a. International Organizations
    1. UNEP’s as an instrument of Regime Formation: The Case Cameroon. (Caburlan)
    2. European Union’s International Environmental Commitment
    (Sorongon)
    b. Changing Face of NGOs: A Case Study of Greenpeace on Whaling Policies of Japan. (Morilla)

  4. Elaine Falguera Villanueva said

    Role of United Nations Environmental Programme in Reinforcing the World Order: Green Economy Initiative

    Outline:
    I. Introduction
    a. Concept of World Order
    b. Concept of Sustainable Development
    i. Integrating the principles and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources.
    II. United Nations Environment Programme
    a. Coordinating the development of environmental policy consensus by keeping the global environment under review and bringing emerging issues to the attention of government and the community for action.
    b. Active in funding and implementing environmentally related development projects.
    c. Promotes active participation, regional cooperation and networking of major groups and stakeholders.
    III. Green Economy Initiative
    a. Assists government in “greening” their economies by reshaping and refocusing policies, investments and spending towards range of sectors.
    b. The Tunisian Solar Programme (PROSOL)
    i. Joint initiative of the Tunisian National Agency for energy conservation (ANME), the State Utility Societe Tunisienne de l’Electricite et de Gaz (STEG) United Nations Environmental Programme and the Italian Ministry for the Environment.
    IV. Conclusion
    a. The Tunisian government used an International Organization to pursue their own interest.

  5. Ivy Clarize Bernardez said

    Sorry! I commented on the wrong post!

    PREVALENCE OF STATE ACTION OVER INTERNATIONAL POLICIES: WHALE CONSERVATION

    Abstract

    The continuous depletion of whale populations has gained global attention, and prompted the formulation of international laws that would aim to regulate the harvesting of these marine mammals. Despite the seeming trend towards a so-called “new world order” through the collective actions of countries to protect these whales, this paper attempts to show how International Environmental Politics (focusing on the issue of whaling) actually reinforces the “old” world order. This paper tries to demonstrate how the international arena is still state-centric, and how states remain self-interested even with the existence of international law. This paper examines two of the major international laws that deal with whaling— the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), and the 1946 International Convention on the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW). This paper also plays close attention to the three top whaling countries— Japan, Iceland, and Norway— and how these states prioritize state interest over environmental conservation, exploiting the vague provisions in the laws or defying the said laws altogether. This paper shows how countries use international law as a means for them to achieve their ends.

  6. Justin Ryan Morilla said

    Environmental Issues are no longer confined within the state however it has now been recognized by states as a global concern. Despite the recognition of Environmental Issues as a global concern, countries could not agree on the solutions to resolve these environmental issues. Moreover, NGOs have taken on an increasingly important and visible role in addressing these environmental issues.

    Before, Japanese environmental policy formation has been dominated by the state. Environmental NGOs played only a little role in the environmental policy changes in Japan in the 1990s. This was the world order, State being the unitary and principal actor in International Environmental Politics. However, the rise of these “non-state” actors has changed the world order. These changes came in response to the elevated levels of attention to environmental issues globally. International relations is no longer simply a matter between states, NGOs play their roles as well. This paper addresses the question of how environmental NGOs have affected the World Order by the internationalization of environmental politics.

    Greenpeace International is one of the NGOs which have effectively influenced the direction of International Environmental Politics. For the organization, protecting the whales for future generations is a global responsibility. With its various activities against the Whaling Activities of the Japanese Government, it has made an influence to other states to pressure Japan’s Whaling Activities. Australia, New Zealand and United States of America are among the countries which has a hard-line policy against Japan. Australian Government has lodged a formal proceeding in the International Court of Justice Against Japan’s Whaling Activities. The Government of New Zealand also now considers taking the same legal action against Japan. Moreover, through the persistent lobbying, petitions and letters sent by Greenpeace Activists to the present administration of the United States of America led by Barrack Obama, Japan has failed to lift the ban on Commercial Whaling agreed by the country members of the International Convention on Whaling.

    Greenpeace International has not only influenced the actions of Other States towards Japan’s Whaling Activities but has also persuaded other Non-Government Organizations in different countries to support the organization’s cause and compel the Japanese Government to end its Whaling Activities. Along with Greenpeace Ocean defenders, Sea Shepherd Society is also one of the NGOs which conduct sea protest operations in the Antarctic Waters. In Chile, Greenpeace together with other NGOs have successfully established a Whale Sanctuary in the territorial waters of the Country. Lastly, Greenpeace and other NGOs in New Zealand have also been active in lobbying the government to reject the recommencement of Commercial Whaling Activities and take legal actions against the violations committed by the Japanese Whaling Fleets.

    NGOs such as Greenpeace International have made an impact to global environmental issues. Greenpeace was successful in lobbying to different country members of the ICW to vote against Japan’s Interest, the resumption of Commercial Whaling. Moreover, with the sea protest activities of the organization, lesser number of whales compared to the research quota has been killed by Japanese Whaling Activities. In conclusion, through NGOs influence on both state and non-state actors in International Environmental Politics, the World Order has changed from State Centrism to an increasing presence of strong NGO community in the society.

  7. Alfie Jay O. Niquia said

    INTERNATIONAL POLITICS IN THE GUISE OF INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY: A KYOTO PROTOCOL CASE STUDY

    ABSTRACT
    United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) initiated Kyoto Protocol which was one of the most significant environmental treaties that aims to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions in order to fight global warming and climate change. On the other hand, this international environmental policy seems to be a paradox as in the case of the United States of America (USA) and People’s Republic of China. It draws the protocol far away in fully and completely achieving its goals as it appears to be a disguise of international politics wherein major powers such as the United States and China still defines the agenda over and above other countries. Furthermore, it could be proven by the reasons behind why the United States refused to ratify the protocol and why one-hundred thirty (130) developing countries led by China were excluded. Finally, the upshots strengthen an assumption of state centrism having states notwithstanding, resisted such international environmental policy safeguarding their own personal interest.

  8. Elaine Falguera Villanueva said

    Villanueva, E. (2010). The Role of the United Nations Environment Programme in Reinforcing the World Order: The Case of the Green Economy Initiative. A Stand Paper submitted to the Division of Social Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines-Visayas, Miagao, Iloilo.

    Abstract

    This paper is a study on the roles of international organization, specifically the United Nation Environment Programme, in reinforcing the current world order through the concept of sustainable development. The world order upholds the statist view: the state is the center of the political arena. Sustainable development is the idea that we ensure to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs. One of the organizations that work in line with the principle of sustainable development is the United Nations Environment Programme, one of the UN bodies. UNEP aims to coordinate the development of environmental policy consensus by keeping the global environment under review and bring emerging issue to the attention of governments as well as the international community for action. UNEP is active in funding and implementing environmentally related development projects all over the world. One of its projects is the Green Economy Initiative which is launched in 2008 and it is created to put forward evidences that would support a global plan for a transition to a green economy and they assist government in “greening” their economies by reshaping and refocusing policies, investments and spending towards range of sectors (e.g. waste management, water services, renewable energies, clean technology, and sustainable agriculture and forests). Many countries benefitted from this UN-led GEI and one of these is the Tunisia. Through the partnership of Tunisian National Agency for Energy Conservation (ANME), the state utility Societe Tunisienne de l’Electricite et de Gaz (STEG), UNEP and the Italian Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea, the Tunisian Solar Programme was made possible. The Tunisian government aimed to reduce the country’s dependence on oil and gas, and so they have taken steps to develop and use the renewable resources present in their country. They have save billions in energy bills, created new jobs for the Tunisians and decrease their fuel imports. This action by the Tunisian government reinforces the world order since they have used an international organization and the help of other government in order to finance their environmental-related project and therefore, to pursue their own interest as a state.

  9. Neser Gumana said

    The Damaging Effect of Foreign Food Aides to the Agricultural Sector in Ethiopia
    Abstract
    The international community have been providing aides to poverty-stricken countries as well as those who are devastated by calamities or drought. This is in line with the commitment of the world’s rich countries in 1970 to give 0.7 percent of their gross national income as official international development aid or foreign aid. African countries receive the largest amounts of foreign aides around the world and among all African countries; Ethiopia has been receiving the largest quantities for around three decades now.

    This research study claims that the indiscriminate and excessive influx of foreign food aides makes Ethiopia more impoverished by damaging its main source of economic power. It will focus on the agricultural sector since that the largest portion of the Ethiopian economic power comes from this area and more than 80% of their working force is farmers. Several areas in Ethiopia are often devastated by famine and drought and people from these places rely on foreign food aides to survive. However, food aides are also distributed to unaffected areas thus decreasing the prices of the local products and discouraging farmers to plough their lands. There are also reports that people leave their farms and go to refugee camps where foreign food aides are available. Lastly, this paper will also look at the possible solutions to the issues on foreign food aides in Ethiopia and will tackle some recommendations toward the international community in relation to the giving of foreign aides.

    Neser Nesthur Ray L. Gumana Jr.
    University of the Philippines in the Visayas
    College of Arts and Sciences
    Division of Social Sciences
    Miag-ao, Iloilo, Philippines

  10. Jamiline Marie Lebrilla said

    Strengthening the State: Desertification in Ethiopia and Nigeria

    There have been many ways for people to define “world order”, many ways to describe how states seemingly interact in the international system, and also, many ways to assume that a “new world order” is being ushered into the said system. State-centrism is what some believe to be the current world order, where states are anarchic, and where they are self-interested and act only when it benefits them Some would believe also that a new world order is being ushered into the system as well, brought on by the concept of “international environmental politics” where problems cross boundaries, ergo, states should be more cooperative and less state-centered, or states sovereignty should be decreased in order for external institutions to change its environmental policies. This paper seeks to negate that by stating that international environmental politics doesn’t challenge world order, it reinforces it.
    What will be explored here is the current situation in Nigeria and Ethiopia where desertification is harming the land and the people. Desertification is an international environmental problem, one recognized by the global community, as can be seen by the amount of aid given by the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. Desertification in Nigeria and Ethiopia has largely been brought on by the over usage of land and water resources due to their large populations. In Ethiopia, over 70% of the land has been affected by desertification, while Nigeria is reported to be losing 1, 355 miles of rangeland and cropland to desertification every year. Worldwide, Africa is not the only region being affected by desertification, but eleven other Northern states as well.
    This paper will discuss the causes of desertification, its impacts on Nigeria and Ethiopia, and the policies that been made to combat it. It will explore how policies have contributed to the rise in state power, specifically the realist-statist view of it, and how this rise in state power strengthens the state, therefore reinforcing the world order.

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