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Instructions for Political Science 180 Stand Paper Presentation

Posted by Brian C. Ventura on September 30, 2011

Abstract submission.

 The presenter has to provide soft copy of the abstract (300 words) as a comment below this post.

  • Due for Groups 1 and 2 presenters October 1, Saturday, 5 pm;
  • Due for Groups 3 and 4 presenters October 4, Tuesday, 12 noon.

 

 

Those who cannot comply will not be allowed to present.

 

Presentation 

 

Before the presentation each presenter is to distribute hard copies of his/her abstract to the whole class.

 

A hard copy of the abstract and a handout format of the slides is also to be submitted to the instructor before the start of the presentation.

 

Each presenter is given 8 minutes to present and a maximum of 5 slides. I will cut your presentation the moment you end with the 5th slide.

 

Title and Main argument

Explanation of the argument

Case proof- present how the case proves your claim

Conclusion

 

After the presentation, the person assigned to ask a question has to give a short review or reaction then ask a question. Five minutes will be allotted for review, questions and answers.

 

Please disseminate this information to facilitate compliance.

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33 Responses to “Instructions for Political Science 180 Stand Paper Presentation”

  1. Brian C. Ventura said

    Post Abstract for Group One here

    • Dolly Venegas said

      Dolly Venegas
      2009-64245
      Group 1

      Abstract

      United Nations as Challenger of Great Powers: A Case Study of International Criminal Court and United States

      International organizations are purveyor of international norms. For the liberalist, international organizations evolve into supranational organizations that exercise authority and jurisdiction over nation-states and helps assist government in overcoming conflicts and problems peacefully. United Nations, an international organization, is instrument of all its sovereign member states. The universality and impartiality of the UN provides the common ground where countries can achieve maximum benefits from cooperation, while guaranteeing that the sovereignty of each member is protected. This paper will prove that UN is not merely a puppet of Great powers. It can be a challenger of Great powers through its procedural practices and legitimizing functions. A case study of United States versus the United Nation’s International Criminal Court (ICC) will be presented. The case study shows how the structure of the ICC differs from that of what the US is accustomed and thus, US needs to adapt that structure whenever it sign the treaty. The power to prosecute Americans despite of US’ “unsigning” the treaty also matters. Prosecutor and judges of ICC may also manipulate ambiguity of crimes to their advantage in order to target US. Hypothetically speaking, if US is to ratify the treaty, UN poses challenge by inducing the new structure to it. The legitimacy of ICC in prosecuting Americans is a challenge for US since their influence in the prosecution process is limited. The powers prosecutors and judges to prosecute are legitimate because it was mandate of the Assembly of State Parties. US are being challenged because it can be the subject of prosecution due to its engaged activities in other states. UN is a challenger to Great powers. And no country, however powerful, is able to dictate UN single-handedly.

    • Smile Peraman said

      SMILE PERAMAN BA POLSCI IV

      United Nations as a Challenger of Major Powers: Case Study on UN Trusteeship Council and United Nations Transitional Government in East Timor

      ABSTRACT

      The United Nations established the International Trusteeship System for the supervision of Trust Territories to promote their political, economic and social advancement and their progressive development towards self-government or independence ensuring that Governments responsible for their administration took adequate steps to prepare them for the achievement of the charter goals.
      Thus, this system challenges the major powers having foreign interests to the territories since the administering powers ensure that their activities do not run counter to the interest of the territories’ inhabitants and enables the independent peoples to exercise fully and without delay their inalienable right to self-determination and independence. Since it urged that member states should rededicate themselves to the principles and objectives of the declaration, it has also called upon to withdraw immediately and unconditionally the military bases and installations from the member states.
      As with the case of East Timor after achieving its independence from Indonesia, the UN established the United Nations Transitional Government in East Timor (UNTAET) to be the administrative power having one of the major powers to coordinate authority for the donor input of the territory. Hence, since United States has interests geographically, it gave donations to the territory which was blocked by the transitional government to safeguard if it does not impede the implementation of the UN objective. Therefore, has restricted the continuing activities of foreign interests of the major powers. Thus, this proves that the United Nations (UN) is indeed a challenger of the major powers.

    • Jordana Mari Jaco
      BA in Political Science III

      Philippines as a challenger of Great Powers in the General Assembly

      Abstract:

      The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) has the power to make decisions with majority vote which involves admission or expulsion of member states, the suspension of their rights and privileges, the election of member states to major United Nations bodies and the making of recommendations to member states and/or to the Security Council. Accordingly, this egalitarianism makes the UNGA an instrument of small states to challenge great powers, specifically the members of the Security Council composed of the United States, United Kingdom, France, China and Russia in different issues by proposing resolutions that could be against the interests of one of these five countries.

      Philippines is one of the small states that challenges great powers in the UNGA. In the leadership of then representative Carlos P. Romulo, it has accomplished several proposals which include disarmament, non proliferation of nuclear weapons and other economic agenda which some are adopted by the General Assembly that challenges the power of these big and influential states in the United Nations. Of course, it is by fact that these resolutions also addressed the interests of the Philippines when it comes to foreign affairs and its role in the United Nations.

      Furthermore, UNGA is a place to set the agendas of world politics, to get ideas endorsed or condemned and actions taken or rejected. The pattern of lopsided voting and for instance the frequent condemnations of the U.S. policies led the U.S, in particular, to regard the General Assembly, even UN in general, as a “hostile place”.

      This paper will focus on the effects of these resolutions initiated by the Philippines to the great powers and how it affects the interests of great powers inside UN.

    • Edilyn Magbanua said

      Ma. Edilyn C. Magbanua 1 October 2011
      200671896

      PS 180 Stand Paper: Abstract
      Group 1, 3rd Presenter

      United Nations as an Agent of Imperial Internationalism

      United Nations (UN) was founded to restore peace and prevent war. However, there are a lot of critiques about the foundating of UN as simply an instrument of Great Powers. This stems from the fact that the very basis of the founding of UN was sponsored by these Great Powers and that they were the ones responsible on drafting the Charter; basing it from their ideological perspectives. What we should know is that the UN was to become a club headed by Great Britain and United States – two of five Great Powers – which would serve as a means of spreading “imperial internationalism”, whereby UN was an extension of beliefs and values of the dominant powers in the early 20th century.

      The UN was composed of different organizations and functions, and lived up to the founding principles stated in the UN Charter. However, analyzing the ideological components that are contributed by Great Powers in founding the UN, a naked truth is revealed; that is UN was an instrument of these Great Powers in furthering their imperialist agendas. Imperial internationalism in the sense was taking imperialism on the international arena, whereby UN was an agent of Great Powers. Imperialism is defined by Smith (1981) as could be the “effective domination by a relatively strong state over a weaker people whom it does not control as it does its home population, or as the effort to secure such domination.” This imperial internationalism could take in various forms. The practice of Great Powers in terms of imperial internationalism in UN could be seen in aid, peacekeeping and trusteeship system which promotes their values such as the search for national self-determination, economic well-being and importance of education. Given this, does UN really permit to be an agent of imperial internationalism forwarded by the Great Powers?

    • Connie Jane Oracion said

      Connie Jane D. Oracion
      2009-46237
      Group One

      US FUNDING UN

      The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, and achievements of world peace. The United Nations was created immediately after World War II to prevent another World War from happening..

      The Great Powers in the United Nations are those countries which permanent members of the UN Security Council namely: US, China, Russia, France and United Kingdom.

      The United Nations can either be an instrument of Great Powers or challengers to Great Powers. The Great Powers uses the UN to exploit or control other countries. Great Powers uses UN to advance their interest. US always uses its veto and has something with the Arab-Israeli Conflict in the Middle East.

      The United Nations can also be a challenger to the great powers. East Timor is one such country that is under the care of UN since it cannot yet stand on its own. UN takes care of East Timor to avoid Great Powers from taking advantage of the current state of the country.

      UN FUNDING

      UN is funded either by voluntary contributions or collecting dues to each member countries. Dues are determined by the country’s wealth or capacity to pay. US, among other countries, gives the largest amount of contribution to UN for its activity. UN overhauled their financing system in order to address the condition of US before paying its arrears. UN could not afford to lose US because US has the largest economy and UN activities will be paralyzed for a while if US pulls out their membership.

      US also used the UN to attack Iraq and Afghanistan by funding for the war. Although their was no legitimate authorization from the UN, US, together with UK, still attacked Iraq and Afghanistan to oust Hussein from position and end the Taliban regime.

    • Gelie Rose Famillaran said

      Topic: The UN and International Politics: instrument or challenger of the Major Powers?

      Main argument: Great Powers control the agenda of the UN Security Council.

      US and the Use of Veto Power on UN Resolutions Criticizing Israel

      The UN Security Council are composed of the 15 members. Five countries – United States, China, France, United Kingdom and Russia were designated as the permanent members and the rest are the non-permanent members.
      These five permanent members of the UN Security Council were given a power of veto which enables them to prevent the adoption of any substantive draft resolution in the Council, regardless of the level of international support for that certain draft.
      United States are using its veto power mostly in the case of Israel. US and Israel had a special relationship for a number of decades. During the time of state-building, Israelis have looked to the United States for inspiration, financial and military assistance, and diplomatic support. On the other hand, Americans viewed Israel with a special appreciation for its successful effort to follow the Western democratic tradition, its remarkable economic development, and its determined struggle against its uncompromising enemies.
      There were already numerous UN Security Council resolutions criticizing Israel being vetoed by the United States. Examples of such resolutions are the Calling for UN Observers Force in West Bank, Gaza (2001) wherein US vetoed the resolution on the establishment of a UN observer force in the Middle East, ostensibly to protect Palestinian Civilians from Israeli military operations in the West bank and Gaza territories.
      Another resolution was the Killing by Israeli forces of several UN employees and the destruction of the World Food Programme (WFP) warehouse (2002).
      US vetoed also a resolutions demanding that Israel halt threats to expel Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat (2003). The United Nations General Assembly has voted overwhelmingly in favour of resolution calling on Israel to lift its threat to exile Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat.
      And the latest issue regarding UN resolutions on Israel and Palestine’s case was the Palestine’s application as permanent member in UN. Approval of Palestine’s membership will be detrimental to Israel’s interests. It might lose its territories. US administration has indicated they would likely use their veto to block the process in the Security Council
      Great powers have the capacity to protect their allied states through the use of their veto power. They could advance their interests using other states. Inorder to do such, they would protect that certain state from criticisms and enemies.

  2. Brian C. Ventura said

    Post Abstract for Group Two here

    • Frances Anthea R. Redison said

      Frances Anthea R. Redison
      2009-39626
      Group 2

      Abstract

      International Aid Imposes Structural Adjustments which Failed to Provide Economic Growth in Haiti

      Poverty is rated as the most serious global issue today; the widespread of poverty connotes unemployment, substandard housing, poor health conditions, and inadequate nutrition. To address the issue of poverty, the global community developed foreign aid. It is a loan provided by a government or international organization to help the recipient country and must pay back the loan within a specified period. For the last two decades, the Caribbean nation of Haiti has been obedient to the conditions of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank and yet Haiti persists to be the poorest country in the Americas. In order to receive loans, the Haitian government has to give in to the demands of the IMF that damaged the agricultural sector of the country. They cut assistance to small farmers and opened the economy of Haiti into cheap agricultural products. As the rice from the US soon flooded the country, depressed the prices and pushed farmers to stop working thus increasing the unemployment and people became dependent on imported goods. This paper aims to evaluate the structural adjustment policies in the agricultural sector of Haiti imposed by the IMF. As the farmers stopped working because the government cut its assistance, many of them were put out of the business. Furthermore, with the lower import tariffs on rice, they could no longer compete with the agricultural products coming from the United States thus, lowering domestic production. These structural adjustment policies forced the government of Haiti to be subjected to the demands of the IMF that benefited the foreign investors through lower tariffs, undermining the needs of its people by challenging the agricultural sector. This paper will also focus on the effects of these structural adjustment policies and how it contributed to perpetuating the poverty in Haiti rather than solving it.

      • Regina said

        Regina E. Zagala B.A. Political Science III PolSci 180 (group II)
        ABSTRACT:
        Debt Reduction in Tanzania
        The issue of debt relief was hotly debated during the 1990s and extensive debts have been considered to cripple the growth prospects of particularly the poorest least developed countries. The Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC I & HIPC II) that was launched in 1996-1999 through the help of donor communities help Tanzania’s economy and the people.
        Tanzania is one of the poorest countries (located in the Southern part of East Africa) in the whole world with an external debt of about US $ 7.3 billion, equivalent to 101% of the GDP in December 1999.
        Tanzania is among the largest recipient of foreign aid. External resource flows have increased from about $1.1 billion in 2000 to about $2.8 billion in 2008. The budget support mechanisms has improved predictability of external resource inflows and therefore improved budget planning and execution. Tanzania is one of the ten pilot countries to be benefitted from the initiative.
        After receiving the foreign aid, there is progress toward a market-based economy and movement away from the previous reliance on direct controls and government ownership of the means of production. The Real GDP growth has increased about 4.1% on 2000. The debt relief also strengthened poverty reduction programs of Tanzania. Government has been successful in stabilizing the economy. The social services had been expanded such as increase access in education and health services which had a positive impact on the stock of human capital and productivity of individuals. There is also expansion of labor-intensive industries that increased the income and decreased number of people falling into poverty line. There is also change in the over-valuation and over-taxation of agriculture policies and the fiscal and budget management was improved. The government had set an appropriate target for fiscal deficits thus strengthening public expenditure management and tax reform.

    • llorico said

      Raiza Khey Llorico

      Public Investment of International Aid on Agriculture and Food Security: A measure to solve Poverty-The Case of India

      The Green Revolution of the 1960s, which led to new advances that brought millions of people from the brink of starvation, was a direct result of US-India collaboration in Agriculture, particularly the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) response and aid. USAID saw the need to fund public investment on Agriculture. This effort was done to help improve India’s food security and reduction of poverty by achieving sustainable higher income for farmers.
      43% of India’s territory remains employed in agricultural activities. Agriculture provides employment to 60% of India’s population. While the rural areas are still home to 72% of the India’s 1.1 billion people, a large number are poor. Most of poor depend on rain-fed agriculture and fragile forests for their livelihoods. 60% of India’s agriculture is dependent on rain-fed crops and modest alterations in the intensity, frequency, and timing of rainfall can disrupt agriculture production which resulted to lower food production, lower income of farmers, dependence on high-priced agricultural product imports which generated lower purchasing power of the people which eventually resulted to poverty and starvation.
      USAID saw the need for a radical transformation of the agricultural sector that copes with climate change and food security and transitions towards sustainability. Transformations was seen in their Agriculture and Food Security Program which achieved self-sufficiency in food production and and food supply and increased farmers’ incomes by 15-20%.
      Hence, International Aid can be best effective to solve poverty if its geared towards investing to the most significant factor that defines the socio-economic conditions of the people and if aid is given through a sustained and committed relationship between the donor and the recipient country like the US and India.

    • laguda said

      Allyn Mae Laguda B.A. Political Science III

      International Aid Creating Enterprises: The Case of Mozambique Poultry Industry
      Mozambique’s domestic poultry industry was facing a great problem by the early 2000’s. By the year 2005 one-third of the nation’s poultry was imported contributing to the worsening problem of domestic consumption, because importers held most of the power that is why some of the small poultry owners were facing foreclosure because of multinational competitors.
      But in 2007 the United States Department of Agriculture in partnership with Technoserve assembled various poultry producers and owners to form the Mozambican Aviculture Association. The association has effectively encouraged local consumption and at the same time decreased the percentage of imported poultry products.
      By 2010, they have increased their market share from one-thirds to three-fourths because the Mozambican Poultry industry increases from $25 million to $160 million by 2009. They also increased their production of chickens from 8,500 chicks per week to 45,000 chicks per week and still counting, in which it leads to exports transactions with the Multinational Corporations (MNC’s). Another is the additional 95,000 jobs which helps the unemployment problem of the country. As the industry expands they also give incentives to large poultry companies to train small holder poultry farmers because the country needs to adapt in the progress of technology, aiming to educate all poultry farmers and at the same time to improve their livelihood programs.
      In conclusion, International Aid in the form of enterprises promotes long term-development by targeting sectors which they think parallels to the interest of the recipients which can be justified through various efforts of the donors to hire former owners of small poultry companies. Also through monetary support they promotes skill enhancement for the recipients to cope with the advancement of technology by training various smallholder poultry farmers.

    • Llorico said

      Raiza Khey Llorico

      Public Investment of International Aid on Agriculture and Food Security: A measure to solve Poverty-The Case of India

      The Green Revolution of the 1960s, which led to new advances that brought millions of people from the brink of starvation was a direct result of US-India collaboration in Agriculture, particularly the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) response and aid. USAID saw the need to fund public investment on Agriculture. This effort was done to help improve India’s food security and reduction of poverty by achieving sustainable higher income for farmers.
      43% of India’s territory remains employed in agricultural activities. Agriculture provides employment to 60% of India’s population. While the rural areas are still home to 72% of the India’s 1.1 billion people, a large number are poor. Most of poor depend on rain-fed agriculture and fragile forests for their livelihoods. 60% of India’s agriculture is dependent on rain-fed crops and modest alterations in the intensity, frequency, and timing of rainfall can disrupt agriculture production which resulted to lower food production, lower income of farmers, dependence on high-priced agricultural product imports which generated lower purchasing power of the people which eventually resulted to poverty and starvation.
      USAID saw the need for a radical transformation of the agricultural sector that copes with climate change and food security and transitions towards sustainability. Transformations was seen in their Agriculture and Food Security Program which achieved self-sufficiency in food production and and food supply and increased farmers’ incomes by 15-20%.
      Hence, International Aid can be best effective to solve poverty if its geared towards investing to the most significant factor that defines the socio-economic conditions of the people and if aid is given through a sustained and committed relationship between the donor and the recipient country like the US and India.

    • LAGUDA said

      Allyn Mae Laguda B.A. Political Science III

      International Aid Creating Enterprises: The Case of Mozambique Poultry Industry
      Mozambique’s domestic poultry industry was facing a great problem by the early 2000’s. By the year 2005 one-third of the nation’s poultry was imported contributing to the worsening problem of domestic consumption, because importers held most of the power that is why some of the small poultry owners were facing foreclosure because of multinational competitors.
      But in 2007 the United States Department of Agriculture in partnership with Technoserve assembled various poultry producers and owners to form the Mozambican Aviculture Association. The association has effectively encouraged local consumption and at the same time decreased the percentage of imported poultry products.
      By 2010, they have increased their market share from one-thirds to three-fourths because the Mozambican Poultry industry increases from $25 million to $160 million by 2009. They also increased their production of chickens from 8,500 chicks per week to 45,000 chicks per week and still counting, in which it leads to exports transactions with the Multi-national Corporations (MNC’s). Another is the additional 95,000 jobs which helps the unemployment problem of the country. As the industry expands they also give incentives to large poultry companies to train small holder poultry farmers because the country needs to adapt in the progress of technology, aiming to educate all poultry farmers and at the same time to improve their livelihood programs.
      In conclusion, International Aid in the form of enterprises promotes long term-development by targeting sectors which they think parallels to the interest of the recipients which can be justified through various efforts of the donors to hire former owners of small poultry companies. Also through monetary support they promotes skill enhancement for the recipients to cope with the advancement of technology by training various smallholder poultry farmers.

    • flaire88 said

      Nesgen Rhea G. Caburlan 1 October 2011
      200658075

      Group2

      International Aid coming from the Global Community leads to the Separation of the Government from the people, thus, it Perpetuates Poverty: The Case of Bangladesh

      Abstract:

      International aid as defined means “the international transfer of capital, goods, or services from a country or international organizations for the benefit of the recipient country or its population.” On the other hand poverty as defined means “the lack of basic human needs because of the inability to afford them.” Poverty has been present to many underdeveloped countries in the world. To address the problem of poverty, global community gives aid to these countries. Bangladesh is one of the recipient countries that receive aid coming from the global community. Bangladesh receives and remains heavily dependent on foreign aid for the purpose of its development and socio-economic progress. There are two means that Bangladesh receives aid: military aid and economic aid and usually, aid come in monetary form. The different organizations that give aid to Bangladesh are UN (United Nations) through the UNICEF (United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund), USAID (United States Agency for International Development) and ADB (Asian Development Bank).

      This paper intends to assert that foreign aides are not given to Bangladesh in the right way and it further fuels corruption in the country. In addition, the government disregard the concerns of the people since the aides had created an independence and isolation of the government from the people. The government focuses more on appeasing the donors while the poor for whom the aid is intended are overlooked. The effects of the separation of government and people are the following: there is an income inequality as a product of separation; the issue of inappropriate conditionality; the projects or programs are led by the donors and endorsed by government and lastly; there cases of human violations. Therefore, International Aid coming from the Global Community perpetuates poverty.

    • Nesgen Rhea Caburlan said

      Nesgen Rhea G. Caburlan 1 October 2011
      200658075

      Group2

      International Aid coming from the Global Community leads to the Separation of the Government from the people, thus, it Perpetuates Poverty: The Case of Bangladesh

      Abstract:

      International aid as defined means “the international transfer of capital, goods, or services from a country or international organizations for the benefit of the recipient country or its population.” On the other hand poverty as defined means “the lack of basic human needs because of the inability to afford them.” Poverty has been present to many underdeveloped countries in the world. To address the problem of poverty, global community gives aid to these countries. Bangladesh is one of the recipient countries that receive aid coming from the global community. Bangladesh receives and remains heavily dependent on foreign aid for the purpose of its development and socio-economic progress. There are two means that Bangladesh receives aid: military aid and economic aid and usually, aid come in monetary form. The different organizations that give aid to Bangladesh are UN (United Nations) through the UNICEF (United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund), USAID (United States Agency for International Development) and ADB (Asian Development Bank).

      This paper intends to assert that foreign aides are not given to Bangladesh in the right way and it further fuels corruption in the country. In addition, the government disregard the concerns of the people since the aides had created an independence and isolation of the government from the people. The government focuses more on appeasing the donors while the poor for whom the aid is intended are overlooked. The effects of the separation of government and people are the following: there is an income inequality as a product of separation; the issue of inappropriate conditionality; the projects or programs are led by the donors and endorsed by government and lastly; there cases of human violations. Therefore, International Aid coming from the Global Community perpetuates poverty.

    • Amie Claire G. Tatud said

      Amie Claire G. Tatud BA Political Science III
      Political Science 180

      Group II
      (Last Presenter)

      Foreign Aid Perpetuates Poverty by Aggravating Corruption in the Domestic Level:
      A Case Study on Kenya

      (Abstract)

      The paper deals with the topic of how foreign aid perpetuates poverty. And the underlying argument to prove this is: Foreign Aid perpetuates poverty by Aggravating Corruption in the Domestic Level. The case study is the Republic of Kenya. We defined corruption as an act of wrongdoing by those in a special position of trust and the self-benefiting conduct by public officials and others dedicated to public service.
      First, Foreign aid becomes the incentives to corruption, in this case to embezzle developmental and public lands for personal use. Incentives can also mean that it is used as a reward or compensation given by those in power to somebody whom they wanted to get support or had supported them. Most Western donors unknowingly support corruption by providing stacks of money to governments without expecting much accountability in return. This was proven by the Anglo-Leasing Scandal that happened to Kenya in from 1997 to 2002. The scandal was about the aid given to Kenya, supposedly for the installation of passport and security equipments. The account was awarded to a British Company, the Anglo-Leasing Company but it was later found out that it was in truth a non-existent company and the funds went to corrupt officials instead. Aid money also makes Kenyan politics a high-stakes playing field and creates wrong motivation and incentives to governments. As presented by the case of the Daniel Arap Moi’s government and the case of the Refugee Support Aid. There is very strong ethnic politics in Kenya which highlights corruption and unequal development and worst case poverty. Kenyan Politicians routinely operate as ethnic patrons, doling out favors and benefits to members of their own ethnic communities. Ethnic politics in Kenya thus consists of a reciprocal relationship between politicians and voters, which makes the problem extremely difficult to remedy. Government used aid as incentive to fulfill political commitments and to gather support and sacrifice the larger population to which aid was originally intended to be used as what happened to the grant of $ 400, 000, the developmental aid for Sugar, Tea and Coffee Industries.
      Second, Foreign Aid creates Bloated Bureaucracies. Aid flows destined to help the average Africans end up creating and supporting bloated bureaucracies in the form of the poor-country governments and donor-funded non-governmental organizations. This was illustrated by the case of the Kenyan Aid for Aids. Over the past few decades, state bureaucracies have swollen, packed with political supporters in the form of ghost employees and nonexistent or non-functioning government agencies and commissions. The bloated bureaucracy makes it all the more difficult to relegate functions since different government sectors and bureaucracies are fragmented and are sharing functions as what happened to the case of the Agriculture and Food Security Agency. The function of agriculture and food security is shared between different sectors and commonly, in the end nothing gets done. The same thing happens to the Ministries of Health and Education
      And because of these factors, foreign aid fails to achieve what is originally intended to be allocated for. And even though African nations like Kenya keeps on being grounded poverty and social destitution and continually cries for help, all aid donors should first rethink of giving more and more aid to countries.
      Indeed, helping these poor African states is a very noble course but the whole campaign has worsened the problem instead of helping solve it, it uncontrollably becomes the case of the blind leading the clueless and has a record of continuous failure. In the end it is the country itself that must solve its problems first before any other foreign entity can enter and do goo more good than harm.
      Reply

  3. Brian C. Ventura said

    Post Abstract for Group Three here

    • Jamiline Marie Lebrilla said

      Jamiline Marie C. Lebrilla
      2007-40741

      Group 3
      Nuclear Weapons are a tool for security due to their ability to deter threat through inflicting unacceptable damage. Case Study: US and Soviet Union

      Abstract

      The Cold War holds an unforgettable part of our history because it could be characterized as forty-five years of high level tension and competition between the superpowers (US and USSR) but with no direct military conflict. This situation can be credited to the existence of nuclear weaponry. Because of the advent of nuclear weapons, a bipolar stalemate occurred between these two countries, both treating the other with extreme caution, and only coming once to the precipice of war with the other.

      Nuclear weapons are a powerful deterrent in matters of security because it has the power to produce unacceptable damage upon both sides. A modern thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than 2,400 pounds (1,100 kg) can produce an explosive force comparable to the detonation of more than 1.2 million tons (1.1 million tonnes) of TNT. Thus, even a small nuclear device no larger than traditional bombs can devastate an entire city by blast, fire and radiation.
      The facility of nuclear weapons for mass destruction is the reason why it becomes such an effective tool for deterrence. Through deterrence, security then increases for the side of the state which controls a nuclear arsenal. In the case of the Cold War, both the US and the USSR were at a stalemate because both knew that destruction would be assured for both if ever they were to go directly against each other.

      The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis represents a high-profile direct confrontation between the superpowers in yet another area of the world. Originally devised by the Soviet Union to compensate for its lagging missile program, the Soviets took the bold move of installing missiles in Cuba, 90 miles from US shore. Once discovered by the US, they saw this as a threat on US soil as no weapons of a powerful enemy have ever been so close to US shores. The way in which the crisis was resolved suggests that neither party was looking for a direct confrontation. The US chose to blockade Cuba from Soviet shipments instead of using more coercive measures, though these measures were never permanently tabled either. Both sides then went into closed door negotiations in order to defuse the situation.

      The resolution of the problem, then, strongly agrees with the argument that nuclear weapons are a tool for security due to their ability to deter threat when both sides have a nuclear arsenal.

      • reyanne said

        Reyanne Joy Librado
        2009-08505

        Group III

        Impact of Nuclear Development to the Bilateral Relations of India and Pakistan

        Case Study: The Kargil Conflict of 1999

        Abstract

        Nuclear weapons are identified as weapons of mass destruction that could either secure or post threat to international security. In the realist’s lens, nuclear weapons are perceived to create a balance of power and affirm the principle of deterrence between countries. In such a case, war is prevented since rational decision-makers would prefer not to enter such situation due to an equally assured destruction. Such assumption proves to be false in the case of the Indo-Pakistani conflict in the Jammu-Kashmir.

        The Jammu-Kashmir Border is a long standing geopolitical conflict between Pakistan and India that resulted to several wars starting from 1947, 1965, 1971 and an insurgency and militancy that involved Kashmiri militants in 1989. The regional security and the border conflict of South Asia gathered the interest of the international community when both countries developed nuclear weapons. Nuclear Pakistan and India are expected to develop a renewed confidence through the Lahore Initiative that aimed to strengthen the bilateral relations through security consultations and confidence building in the countries’ military capability.

        Prior to such nuclear developments, an asymmetric military capability exists between both countries, in favor of India. However, the presence of nuclear weapons created a military strategic symmetry that instead triggered Pakistan to pursue conflict using conventional weaponry. This was affirmed after Pakistan breached the Memorandum of Understanding of the Lahore Initiative through infiltrating the Line of Control(LOC) in Kargil, Kashmir. The international community was alarmed as conflict escalated to confrontation that further stretched into the Kargil War that posts the risk of nuclear escalation.
        In conclusion, nuclear weapons failed to stop the hostilities and insecurity in the inherent geopolitical conflicts, particularly in the Jammu-Kashmir Border. Deterrence of nuclear weapons created instability in the regional security of South Asia.

    • Rhodessa C. Esmeralda said

      Rhodessa C. Esmeralda (2008-55491)

      “Second-Strike Capability promotes Rational Deterrence; A case study on US and USSR”

      Abstract
      Nuclear Deterrence Theory and practice were developed and implemented in a historical era in which the two superpowers-US and the USSR competed in the arena of nuclear weaponry. Both United States and Soviet Union were convinced that deterrence required them to maintain nuclear forces that could survive a first nuclear strike and still have the capability to launch a retaliatory strike delivering catastrophic destructive capabilities to the adversary’s population, society and economy. The concept of second-strike capability allows deterrence to work since, the aggressor knows it will be vulnerable to a second strike with nuclear weapons.

      The paper starts with the premise that states are rational, self-preserving and risk averse in the sense that it won’t risk a large-scale destruction of itself. The state employs rational calculations in determining their position in the balance of power and their policies relative to this. States establish series of military instruments that are sufficient to threaten an opponent in certain ways as well as, convince aggressor to not even think of attacking. Given the second strike capability of a state, core idea of deterrence lies in the asymmetrical capability; strategies and forces to response in a direct nuclear attack and credibility of threat are essential matters in the balance of power. Thus during the Cold War, the superpowers – US and the Soviet Union competition gave rise to the building and deployment of thousands of both strategic and tactical nuclear weapons. To ensure second-strike capability, United States and the Soviet Union built not only large numbers of nuclear weapons, but also a system of delivering nuclear weapons as part of their War Plan and Nuclear Policy such as, US and Soviet Nuclear Triad, where nuclear weapons are launched from air (e.g. bombers), sea (e.g. missiles launched from submarines) and land (e.g. missiles in silos), strategic weapons in reserve and tactical weapons abroad. It is one thing to have a large enough arsenal to survive and secure state’s security.

    • Bea Gequinana said

      Bea Gequiñana
      BA Political Science III

      Presence of Nuclear Weapons Deter Conventional Military Attacks: Case Study of Israel-Arab States Conflict

      ABSTRACT

      Deterrence posits a psychological relationship which involves decision maker’s emotions, perceptions and calculations. The importance and difficulty of determining the other side’s intentions and actions can raise a dilemma since the policy that is appropriate for dealing with a state with one kind of intention maybe harmful in dealing with one that seeks different goals.

      Deterrence with psychological relationship can be evident in the Israel-Arab Conflicts. Six-Day war of 1965 between Israel and Arab states became a spark of Israel’s idea of nuclear arsenal production. The following years started Israel’s battle against Arab states by deterring conventional military attacks. In early 1969 President Nasser of Egypt abrogated the ceasefire and launched an attack in the Suez Canal. But leaders in Israel proved that nuclear proliferation deter attacks of military forces of Egypt when the planned strike of Anwar el-Sadat against Israel’s military installations in the Sinai preparatory was cancelled. For Arab leaders, the attack would impose an inferior position to their military capability. Again in 1972, the president ordered the Egyptian general staff to prepare to attack across the canal but cancelled the attack in mid November. In early 1973, Egyptian military officers planned a surprise attack for limited military objectives in coordination with Syria. And again, in May, the attack was cancelled. But during the celebration of Yom Kippur Day in October, Egypt and Syria attacked Israel but despite the glaring forces of Egypt and Syria, it was the Israelis who triumphed.

      Israel’s nuclear arsenal proved deterrence because it impose fear and threat on the attacks of Arab states since the latter’s military forces and action will be constrained and strategic advantage will be eroded. Also, nuclear weapon can cause greater damage to its military forces compared to Israel.

  4. Brian C. Ventura said

    Post Abstract for Group Four here

    • Dana Lee Durana said

      Dana Lee M. Durana
      2009-39406
      Group 4

      Abstract

      The Role of Interregional Trade Agreements in Advancing Globalization: The Case of European Union and MERCOSUR

      As the world enters an era to which technological advancement is on its highest peak, states have become increasingly interdependent with one another. In the age of globalization, when almost all the financial markets are connected, it is nearly impossible for a state or a region to detach itself from the global arena.
      It might be contradictory that regionalism actually promotes globalization but through interregional trade agreements, it has been proven that it help nations gradually work towards global free trade by allowing countries to increase the level of competition slowly and give domestic industries the time to adjust. These interregional trade agreements are circles of free trade that expand until they converge to form expansive multilateral agreements which promotes global economic security through its more specific and regulative approach.
      This paper will aim to explain that regionalism is not a form of protectionism but rather, one way of advancing globalization. A case study of the EU-MERCOSUR Interregional Framework for Cooperation Agreement (EMIFCA) will be used. The bilateral agreement between these two regions will prove that interregional trade agreements have opened new markets for goods and services; increase investment opportunities; make trade cheaper by eliminating substantially all custom duties; make trade faster by facilitating goods’ transit through custom duties and setting common rules on technical and sanitary standards; and make the policy environment more predictable by taking joint commitments on areas that affect trade such as intellectual property rights, competition rules and the framework for public purchasing decisions.
      In conclusion, regionalism through interregional trade agreements will strengthen existing relations among states and regions based on reciprocity and community of interests. It is one approach of liberalizing trade that will eventually create a structure of globalized international relations.

    • Nikki Rose Agero said

      Name: Nikki Rose L. Agero
      Course and Year: BA Political Science III
      Instructor: Professor Brian Ventura
      Course: Political Science 180-International Politics
      Date: October 04, 2011

      GROUP IV

      The Role as a Global Actor: EU-led Monitoring Mission in Aceh Peace Process

      Abstract

      The successful role of the European Union as the main guarantor with a strong political will of the peace process in Aceh, Indonesia indicated a remarkable influence in world affairs. EU has certain project towards stability and lasting peace that covers not only within the members but also beyond its borders. Aceh Monitoring Mission provides the ability to mobilize the newly established civilian management within the framework of the European Security Defense Policy (ESDP). Moreover, it directed to have this first joint mission with the full cooperation of the five ASEAN countries that help to build relations with the Indonesian government. This implies cooperation across borders in order to meet the security challenges and additionally, an effective example of multilateralism. The EU-led monitoring mission possibly could be a model for international peace operations in the future.

      In this paper, an overview of European Security Strategy and ESDP which provides the framework in building the monitoring mission is presented. Furthermore, the background of the conflict and the mandates of the AMM that provides a tool to put the EU’s strategy into action in which it includes monitoring demobilization, decommissioning of arms, reintegration of former combatants, withdrawal of government forces, launching of a new political process, monitoring the relocation on non-organic military forces and police troops as well human rights situations, ruling on disputed amnesty cases, investigating the complaints of the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) and establishing liaison and good cooperation with the parties, are drawn. Lastly, illustrations about EU as being the credible global actor in international politics which hold the responsibility for global security and building the better world are analyzed. As well as demonstrating EU as a region is in fact a building block towards advancing globalization.

      • Swelene Sencida said

        Swelene Sencida
        2008-71746
        BA Political Science IV

        EU as a Global Promoter: Environmental Policy towards Protecting, Preserving and Improving the World

        EU has been one of the leading promoters of environmental policies worldwide. Being a region composing of many countries, it does not limit itself within the group only. It also expands its purposes, in this case to protect the environment, worldwide.
        A global mechanism intends to promote collective action at the international scale and to build an integrated environmental policy-making and management framework concerning the tasks of a shared global ecosystem. Nowadays, environmental problems are increasing and reaching global scale proportions through environmental consequences and it requires combined action. Environmental standards can be achieved through the strengthening of environmental management by improving capacities of the government and EU helps them – member states and non-member states.
        EU has been promoting globally environmental policies such as reducing CO2 emissions of different industries and restricting chemical use and proper disposition of it. It also worked in partnership with other international organizations and non-governmental organizations.
        Regionalism advances globalization. In the case of EU, which is considered as the most successful region in the world, it promotes its environmental policies worldwide which results to closer relationship with other countries. This promotion made territorial boundaries less salient.
        The promotion of environmental policies also made the flow of information from countries to countries limitless. In order for the policy to be effective, countries should interact with each other.
        Lastly, this promotion of environmental policies can lead to an integrated International / global environmental policies – which everyone has to follow.
        EU regionalism advances globalization – specifically, its promotion of environmental policy – because there is an intensified interaction / relationship among countries who adheres to this policies.

    • Durana said

      Dana Lee M. Durana
      2009-39406
      Group 4

      Abstract

      The Role of Interregional Trade Agreements in Advancing Globalization: The Case of European Union and MERCOSUR

      As the world enters an era to which technological advancement is on its highest peak, states have become increasingly interdependent with one another. In the age of globalization, when almost all the financial markets are connected, it is nearly impossible for a state or a region to detach itself from the global arena.
      It might be contradictory that regionalism actually promotes globalization but through interregional trade agreements, it has been proven that it help nations gradually work towards global free trade by allowing countries to increase the level of competition slowly and give domestic industries the time to adjust. These interregional trade agreements are circles of free trade that expand until they converge to form expansive multilateral agreements which promotes global economic security through its more specific and regulative approach.
      This paper will aim to explain that regionalism is not a form of protectionism but rather, one way of advancing globalization. A case study of the EU-MERCOSUR Interregional Framework for Cooperation Agreement (EMIFCA) will be used. The bilateral agreement between these two regions will prove that interregional trade agreements have opened new markets for goods and services; increase investment opportunities; make trade cheaper by eliminating substantially all custom duties; make trade faster by facilitating goods’ transit through custom duties and setting common rules on technical and sanitary standards; and make the policy environment more predictable by taking joint commitments on areas that affect trade such as intellectual property rights, competition rules and the framework for public purchasing decisions.
      In conclusion, regionalism through interregional trade agreements will strengthen existing relations among states and regions based on reciprocity and community of interests. It is one approach of liberalizing trade that will eventually create a structure of globalized international relations.

    • Carmela Therese T. Novilla
      BA Political Science IV
      October 4, 2011

      Regionalism as Promoting Domestic Production Over Free Trade: Food Standardization in the EU Common Market

      Abstract

      This paper aims to assert that Regionalism is a form of protectionism as is the case of the food standardization in the EU Common Market. Food security in Europe depends on the functioning of its farming sector and maintaining this production capacity within a stable system of trade relations. The challenge faced by producers, however, is global competition and consumer demand thus the rationale for the Common Agricultural Policy. One of the features of this agricultural policy is to harmonise rules and standards regarding food production within the EU community. The EU Food Law safeguards the harmonisation of these food goods towards free movement inside the EU market. This standardization mechanism is implemented across all EU Member States and is handled by various standard setting organizations that operate in the national or European level such as the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). One of the aspects of standardization is foodstuff labelling where essential information about the content and composition of a product are provided in the package such as list of ingredients, quantity, nutritional value and durability. Others may include a foodstuff’s place of origin. Another feature is quality preservation in the form of uniform testing and certification. The CE marking, for instance is a proof of conformity to EU standardization rules and which also includes enough information that enables an inspector to trace a product back to its manufacturer. The goods with CE marking are free to circulate all over the Member Countries and is a onetime process only. Standardization also limits imports by subjecting them to stringent compliance measures recognised by EU. In the end standardization protects consumers by safeguarding quality and sanitation, protects producers reducing testing costs among others and protects domestic economy by encouraging free movement of goods within the community and limit the entry of non-EU products.

  5. Regina said

    Regina E. Zagala B.A. Political Science III PolSci 180
    ABSTRACT:
    Debt Reduction in Tanzania
    The issue of debt relief was hotly debated during the 1990s and extensive debts have been considered to cripple the growth prospects of particularly the poorest least developed countries. The Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC I & HIPC II) that was launched in 1996-1999 through the help of donor communities help Tanzania’s economy and the people.
    Tanzania is one of the poorest countries (located in the Southern part of East Africa) in the whole world with an external debt of about US $ 7.3 billion, equivalent to 101% of the GDP in December 1999.
    Tanzania is among the largest recipient of foreign aid. External resource flows have increased from about $1.1 billion in 2000 to about $2.8 billion in 2008. The budget support mechanisms has improved predictability of external resource inflows and therefore improved budget planning and execution. Tanzania is one of the ten pilot countries to be benefitted from the initiative.
    After receiving the foreign aid, there is progress toward a market-based economy and movement away from the previous reliance on direct controls and government ownership of the means of production. The Real GDP growth has increased about 4.1% on 2000. The debt relief also strengthened poverty reduction programs of Tanzania. Government has been successful in stabilizing the economy. The social services had been expanded such as increase access in education and health services which had a positive impact on the stock of human capital and productivity of individuals. There is also expansion of labor-intensive industries that increased the income and decreased number of people falling into poverty line. There is also change in the over-valuation and over-taxation of agriculture policies and the fiscal and budget management was improved. The government had set an appropriate target for fiscal deficits thus strengthening public expenditure management and tax reform.

  6. Amie Claire G. Tatud said

    Amie Claire G. Tatud
    2009-46224
    Group 2

    BA Political Science III
    Political Science 180
    Foreign Aid Perpetuates Poverty by Aggravating Corruption in the Domestic Level:
    A Case Study on Kenya

    (Abstract)

    The paper deals with the topic of how foreign aid perpetuates poverty. And the underlying argument to prove this is: Foreign Aid perpetuates poverty by Aggravating Corruption in the Domestic Level. The case study is the Republic of Kenya. We defined corruption as an act of wrongdoing by those in a special position of trust and the self-benefiting conduct by public officials and others dedicated to public service.
    First, Foreign aid becomes the incentives to corruption, in this case to embezzle developmental and public lands for personal use. Incentives can also mean that it is used as a reward or compensation given by those in power to somebody whom they wanted to get support or had supported them. Most Western donors unknowingly support corruption by providing stacks of money to governments without expecting much accountability in return. This was proven by the Anglo-Leasing Scandal that happened to Kenya in from 1997 to 2002. The scandal was about the aid given to Kenya, supposedly for the installation of passport and security equipments. The account was awarded to a British Company, the Anglo-Leasing Company but it was later found out that it was in truth a non-existent company and the funds went to corrupt officials instead. Aid money also makes Kenyan politics a high-stakes playing field and creates wrong motivation and incentives to governments. As presented by the case of the Daniel Arap Moi’s government and the case of the Refugee Support Aid. There is very strong ethnic politics in Kenya which highlights corruption and unequal development and worst case poverty. Kenyan Politicians routinely operate as ethnic patrons, doling out favors and benefits to members of their own ethnic communities. Ethnic politics in Kenya thus consists of a reciprocal relationship between politicians and voters, which makes the problem extremely difficult to remedy. Government used aid as incentive to fulfill political commitments and to gather support and sacrifice the larger population to which aid was originally intended to be used as what happened to the grant of $ 400, 000, the developmental aid for Sugar, Tea and Coffee Industries.
    Second, Foreign Aid creates Bloated Bureaucracies. Aid flows destined to help the average Africans end up creating and supporting bloated bureaucracies in the form of the poor-country governments and donor-funded non-governmental organizations. This was illustrated by the case of the Kenyan Aid for Aids. Over the past few decades, state bureaucracies have swollen, packed with political supporters in the form of ghost employees and nonexistent or non-functioning government agencies and commissions. The bloated bureaucracy makes it all the more difficult to relegate functions since different government sectors and bureaucracies are fragmented and are sharing functions as what happened to the case of the Agriculture and Food Security Agency. The function of agriculture and food security is shared between different sectors and commonly, in the end nothing gets done. The same thing happens to the Ministries of Health and Education
    And because of these factors, foreign aid fails to achieve what is originally intended to be allocated for. And even though African nations like Kenya keeps on being grounded poverty and social destitution and continually cries for help, all aid donors should first rethink of giving more and more aid to countries.
    Indeed, helping these poor African states is a very noble course but the whole campaign has worsened the problem instead of helping solve it, it uncontrollably becomes the case of the blind leading the clueless and has a record of continuous failure. In the end it is the country itself that must solve its problems first before any other foreign entity can enter and do goo more good than harm.

  7. Evaristo said

    Evaristo Buaya III
    200858571
    Group 4

    Regionalism as a form of Protectionism
    EU’s Role in Protecting Domestic Economy: Subsidy and Price Regulation in
    Agricultural Goods

    (Abstract)

    The European Union’s common agricultural policy (CAP) wanted to increase agricultural productivity in the EU and secure availability of food supplies during the Cold War. However, the aims of CAP has now changed and instead it tries to protect agriculture throughout the EU by controlling prices and levels of production and by subsidizing the rural lifestyle in order to safeguard the countryside.

    The CAP is a form of protectionism intended to guard European producers from cheaper products outside the EU. Common Agricultural Policy works by subsidizing the agricultural produce but is now achieved by the EU preventing imports from the outside the EU with a system of import tariffs and at the same time subsidizing farmers throughout the single farm payment. If there is a surplus/excess food the EU then intercedes in the market either by subsidizing export produces at below cost price; storing it, creating EU “Food Mountains”; selling it later; or destroying it. Such exports (surplus) are usually dumped on poor countries such as Africa. The CAP also seeks to manage production by setting quotas on how much a farmer can produce then by paying them not to produce more.

    This policy has been a subject of debate in Europe since it does not only have a huge cost in percentage of the EU budget but also because it is seen as an unjust way of shielding European agriculture from overseas competition when in fact farming contributes relatively little to EU Gross Domestic Product. In fact, common agricultural policy is the most integrated of all EU policies and consequently takes a large share in EU budget. Nevertheless, its portion of the EU budget has dropped from peak of nearly 70% in the 1970s to 34% over the 2007-2013 periods.

  8. Emilda Belotendos Villanueva said

    Emilda Belotendos Villanueva
    (Group 3)
    Ba Political Science
    POl Sci 180
    October 4, 2011

    NUCLEAR WEAPON INSECURITY IN A REGIONAL SETTING: A CASE STUDY OF ISRAEL’S NUCLEAR WEAPON POSSESSION

    The stand of this paper goes in an initiative of Increasing Nuclear Weapon Insecurity in a Regional Settings. A case study of Israel’s Nuclear Weapon Possession is one of major substantiation of mounting nuclear insecurity since Israel is more resistant to challenge for it was the recent country that possessed Nuclear Weapon in Arab states, and therefore it able to challenge the security of a countries that surrounds it and don’t have any nuclear weapon possession.

    In understanding of Israel’s nuclear option, Israel has the most advanced nuclear weapons program in the Middle East during 1950’s to meet the perceived existential threat to the nascent state and declared that it will not be the first to introduce nuclear weapons in the Middle East; however, it has not signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Its possession of nuclear weapons and its policy of declaratory ambiguity have led to increased tensions in current Middle East peace discussions and arms control negotiations.
    Paper supply points of elucidation verifying why and how does Israel Nuclear possession augment the Insecurity in regional setting and such point are: Revelation of Israelis policy agenda on its nuclear opacity and its strategic ambiguity agenda, Iranian offensive nuclear capability (Natanz facilities) that response to hybrid treat of Israelis nuclear possession and policy of nuclear opacity for Israeli policy makers determine to prevent Iran or any nascent nuclear project in a neighboring states, more insecurity of other Arab states to acquire nuclear capability in a case of Syria and Libya and facts ( the explanatory memorandum on Israeli nuclear capabilities and threat submitted by the member of the states in the league of Arab states) stating about high degree of insecurity that pressure Arab states because of Israel nuclear weapon superiority and diplomatic covert actions to prevent middle eastern countries from acquiring nuclear weapon. Because of justifications, Analysis asserts that Nuclear Weapon possession is a tool for insecurity in a final calculation.

  9. Clyde Ben A. Gacayan
    200974490
    GROUP III

    Arguing Against Nuclear Weapons as Tools for Security

    Title: Domestic Vulnerability and Presence of Extremist Groups: Issues of Nuclear of Command and Control in Pakistan

    When a state possesses a nuclear arsenal, it has to address and elaborate on two issues to efficiently employ and manage its nuclear weapons. Firstly, it needs to develop a use doctrine that plans how, under what circumstances, and for what purposes such weapons will be used. Secondly, it needs to put in place a command and control system which ensures that nuclear weapons are only used according to the plans elaborated in the nuclear use doctrine, and not in different circumstances or for other purposes. If properly developed, doctrine and command and control system serve the deterrent interest of a state and at the same time help to avoid inadvertent, unauthorised, or accidental use of nuclear weapons.

    Given this premise, this paper argues that a look into Pakistan’s Nuclear command and control system reveals that the present system in Pakistan is inherently weak and is vulnerable to, non-state actors that of Islamic extremist groups which posits security issues both in the domestic and in the international level. First, concerns that conservative Islamic political forces could hijack the government and the military-either through elections or political manipulation – and gain influence over the nuclear command and control system becomes plausible when we look into Pakistan’s socio-political history with Pakistani leaders and governments consolidating powers, the perceived weakness of secular political forces and the growing social conservatism of the population.(President Musharraf’s manipulation of 2002 election to favour religious political party Muttahida Majlis-e Amal). Second concern is Pakistan’s upgrading of its nuclear stockpiles, redistribution of materials processing and nuclear production facilities and increase in number of storage facilities that also increases the chances of materials proliferation and facility bombings administered by extremist groups in Pakistan.

    Geographical proximity and the growing extremism of Islamic groups coupled with upgrading of nuclear stockpiles and political instability weakens Pakistan’s Nuclear command and control, thus becoming a tool for domestic and international insecurity.

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